Basic Sewing Techniques
Stitches (Basting, Running Stitch, Back Stitch, Hemming), Seam Finishes (Pinked seam finish, edge stitched seam finish, Double stitched seam finish, Herringbone or Catch stitch seam finish, Over casting, Bound seam edge finish), Seam (Plain Seam, Flat felled Seam, French Seam, Lapped Seam, Lap felled Seam, Bound Seam, Flat n felled seam, Piped seam and Loops)
Facing, Lining and Interlining
One piece or continuous placket Bound and faced placket, Zipper placket, and Kurta placket.
Hooks and eyes, Buttons and button holes & Press buttons.
Gathers and Pleats, Frills and Ruffles
Drafts, Tucks and Smoking
Patch pockets, Slash pockets, Side seam pockets, Kangaroo pocket
Plain sleeves, Puff sleeves, Bell or Flared sleeves, Bishop Sleeves, Leg’o mutton sleeves, Kimono sleeves, Raglan Sleeves, Dolman sleeves, Tulip sleeves, Sleeves Cuff.
Curved, V shape, Square, Sweet heart, Scalloped, Pot shape, Drop shape, Key-hole, Slant.
Peter-pan collar, Bertha collar, Cap collar, Scallop collar, Bishop Collar, Square collar, Sailor collar, Shirt collar, Mandarin collar, Shawl collar.
Basic Elements of Design
Lines, color, Shape / Form, Texture, Value, Proportion, Balance, Rhythm, Emphasis, Unity.
Natural Fabrics (Cotton, Silk, Wool, Leather, Hemp, Coir, Jute, Linen) Man Made Fabrics (Acetate, Acrylic, Nylon, Latex, Polyester, Rayon, Spandex)
Necessary Tools for Sewing
Knowledge of Sewing Machine
Different Parts of sewing machine, to set the needle, thread the needle, to remove the bobbin case, to wind the bobbin, to thread the bobbin case, to replace the bobbin case, Prepare for sewing, Machine faults and rectification
Oiling and cleaning of the sewing machine.
How to take Body Measurements
Fabric Preparation and Layout Plan
Tips for Sewing
(Jangia, Jhabla, A-line dress, Sun-suit, Baby frock, Princess petticoat, Pinafore dress, Knickers with elastic, Full pant with elastic, Dungaree, Boy’s shorts, Boy’s night suit, Girl’s night suit, Skirt, One piece frock, Two piece frock, Low-waist frock, Umbrella cut frock, Party wear frock, Half sleeve shirt for boy’s, Adaptations of dress patterns with the help of the bodice block.
Sari petticoat, Night gown, Plain salwar, Kalidar or patiala salwar, Churidar, Fitted kurti with dart, Overlap kurti, Princess line kurti, Kalidar kurti, A-line kurti, Flared kurti, Lucknow kurti, Panel kurti, Belted sari blouse, Choli-cut sari blouse, Women’s shirt, Women’s trouser.
Pajama with night suit, Pant-cut pajama, Men’s kurta with churidar, Full sleeve formal shirt, Formal trouser.
Pillow cover, Cushion cover, small bag, Pouch, Apron, Magazine holder, Traveling pouch, cell phone case, shopping bag.
Basic Sewing Techniques
Basting or tacking
This type of stitches is commonly done as ra stitches to hold the two pieces of fabric together. Hand Basting is very essential while attaching yoke, collar, sleeves, plackets, gathers, pleats or patches.
Hand needle stitch of equal distance is useful for gathering, mending and quilting.
Back stitch is very firm and strong for the area where machine needle cannot reach easily.
Hemming is a slant stitch done on wrong side and very fine and small stitches shows on right side. This is very essential stitch to complete and finish the garment. Hemming can be done on neck line, Bottom flair of frocks and skirts, sleeve bottom, plackets etc.
Flat or plain seam
Flat or plain seam commonly used in dress making. Seam allowance for both the layer of fabric will be equal and edges should finished by overcastting or zigzag.
Flat felled seam
First make a plain seam and trim one side of seam allowance to avoid thickness. Press the seam, turn and fold the larger seam allowance to encase the trimmed edge. The folded edge has two rows of machine stitches and is used for jeans and shirts.
This seam is a seam within a seam. Make a plain seam on the right side of the fabric at a distance of ¼” from edges. The seam is then pressed to one side, turned over to the wrong side of the fabric and then machined at the actual seam line. The first seam is thus enclosed by the second seam line.
When the yoke and dress or any two sections of fabric to be joined, one upon another then the upper part of the fabric is lapped over the lower edge. This seam gives the raised effect.
Lap felled seam
Parallel stitch to lapped seam is called lap felled seam.
The seam edges are bound by a bias strip of a thin fabric to keep the seam from fraying.
Flat n felled seam
Make a plain seam to join two layers of fabrics. Press both the seam allowances either side and machine two parallel stitches on right side of the garment.
A narrow cord is inserted in the bias strip of a fabric and stitched is piped seam.
Loops are stitched to insert belt on trousers and shorts. Stitch a strip of a fabric by folding edges of both sides and place on the area to attach and stitch by bar tacking method.
Facing Lining and Interlacing
Facing are used to finish the necklines and arm holes in a garment. The felted facing should cut exact the shape of the neck line, round, square or V shape and then cut the same shape of fabric layer also matching to the garment. First place fabric layer of neckline and then lining part on the garment on right side. Tack with hand needle and then machine. Turn on wrong side neatly, fold the edges and hem to finish the neck line. Same method is applicable for arm hole finishing also.
Lining is a very light material to attach from inside the garment to protect the fabric from sagging. It used for very fine fabrics, transparent fabrics and lace or net fabrics. To attach lining cut the lining fabric same as the bodice and keep 1/4” allowance for seam on shoulder and side seam and then machine with the main part and turn inside for final stitching. Lining should attach on side seam, and shoulder area.
Mulmul, voile, cambric and satin fabrics are good for lining and can be selected according to the main fabric. If lining material is starched then pre-wash the material before use to prevent shrinkage.
Interlacing or Interfacing
Interfacing is the material inserted between the garment and the facing or lining to add stiffness. It gives a perfect shape and stiffness for collars, cuffs, plackets, waist belts, pocket flaps and salwar bottoms. Interfacing are cut without seam allowances and place first main fabric then lining and on top place inter facing piece and turn after machining.
Plackets are the strips of fabric to finish the opening edges of any garment. Plackets may be of soft of same fabric of garment or may be stiff by inserting interfacing strip. One placket overlaps another to close.
All garments needs openings to put on and taken off easily. These openings can be closed in a variety of ways. Plackets are stitched to finish the openings. Fasteners should be selected to suit the colour, design and texture of the fabric, the style and use of the garment and the position of the placket. Fasteners should stitch after completing the garment by machine sewing.
Gathers are fullness of fabric in garment. To make gathers extra fabric is required. By hand needle make running stitches in equal distance and adjust gatherings by pulling the thread at one end. In machine increase the stitch width and after stitching adjust gatherings by pulling thread at one end. Gathers can be done on sleeves, necklines, skirts or blouses etc.
Pleats are the folds of fabric to control fullness. For the pleats, requirement of fabric depends upon the number and width of the pleats. There are various types of pleats plain pleats, knife pleats, box pleats, inverted box pleats etc.
Frills and Ruffels
Frills are a long strip gathered fabric used for the designing purpose. Frills are attached to the garment on one corner. But ruffles are gathered and attached on centre. Frills are used mainly in frocks, skirts, sleeves, collars, necks and yokes. Ruffles are used for shirts, plackets, skirts and frocks etc.
Pockets are very important parts of a garment for storage and decorative purpose. There are many types of pockets attached to different types of garments.
Patch pockets are a patch of fabric matching to the garment, attached on front part of the garment. To attach patch pockets some precautions should be taken such as, the size of the pocket should be according to the proportion of the garment. It should be attached in a correct position. Fold one side edge of pocket and stitch. Fold other three side edges of the pocket and tack with hand needle. Place the pocket on garment on decided position and tack with hand needle. Stitch the pocket on two sides and bottom. Bar tack or zigzag stitch is necessary at the two sides of open area on top.
Plain sleeves are attached to any garment with matching to centre point of sleeve and shoulder joining. The length of the sleeve may vary as short, medium or full length. Finish the bottom of the sleeves by hemming or by machine. Mark a small notch at the centre of the armhole of the sleeves. Match this notch with the shoulder joining of the bodice and simultaneously match the back and front armhole of sleeves and bodice. Tack the sleeve with hand needle and machine.
There are three types of puff sleeves. In the first type of sleeve puffs are on both side means on the shoulder and on the centre of the sleeve bottom. There are puffs only on shoulder or top of the arm is the second type of puff sleeve. In the third type of sleeve puffs are only on sleeve bottom. To draw the pattern of puff sleeve, first draw plain sleeve draft and then apply slash method to add puffs on shoulder or on bottom of the sleeves. For puff on both sides separate all the segments of plain sleeve and place them in equal distance according to the requirement of the puffs, redraw the out line of sleeve. If puff is required only on one part then don’t slash completely, but keeping other side joint spread the slash part according to the requirement of puffs. Puff sleeves are always popular for frocks, blouses and women’s shirts. Both side puff sleeve by Puff on armhole Puff on sleeve bottom slash method
|Both sides puff sleves by slash method
||Puff on armhole, Puff on sleve bottom |
There are various types and shapes of necks in garment. Neck finishing is very important, because the show of a dress is highlighted by neck designs. Neck shape can be finished by a strip of same fabric and same shape, by facing or by cross strip. Place front and back bodice by matching shoulder point on neck side on paper or facing or on a same piece of fabric. Mark the outline of the neck shape. Remove the bodice and draw an outer line of neck shape by 1 ½” to 2” width. Cut the strip on marked line.
A collar is an added piece of fabric which attached to the neckline of a garment. There are various types of collar for the different types of garment. There are three basic styles of collar.
Collar stand is the band of collar which standing upright from the neck line of a garment and giving height to neck line. Mandarin and Nehru collars are the best example of stand collar.
Flat collar attached to the neck line and is folded back on the body. Peter Pan collar is a type of flat collar.
Style means the shape of outer edge of the collar. Basic body of front and back is needed to cut flat type of collars and for the stand and with band collars separate drafting is necessary. Place the front and back bodice block and draw the neck shape on a paper sheet. Mark the collar outline according to the shape of neck design.